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The Lead Bullion is fed into a refining kettle. Lead bullion contains many other metallic impurities including antimony, arsenic, copper, tin and zinc.
Refining Process of Lead in Detail :
About Lead Refining :
Lead recycled from used lead acid batteries or other sources (Secondary Smelting) via the Mini Blast Furnace or Rotary Furnace route, contains lot of contamination and undesired components. On the other hand, Lead required for battery manufacturing is either soft Lead with 99.97% purity or hard Lead of varying Antimony compositions.In order to make quality of lead suitable for its different uses,different variations of pot melting processes are employed.
These includes :
The equipment used is the same, the consumables and the processes, however, differ.
Refining Pot Details :
The Refining Pot (or Refining Kettle or Alloying Pot, as it is variously called), is a mechanical mixing device with a pot and a heating arrangement. The inner pot is made of heavy MS plate with dish end bottom. It is placed within a jacket of refractory bricks, which in turn, are protected by an outer cover of MS plate with reinforcements. The pot is covered at the top with opening for feeding lead ingots and is provided with an electro-mechanical mixer. At the bottom, a heating source, usually an oil fired/ Diesel burner& sometimes by Wood burning is provided to heat the pot and to melt the lead. Once lead melts, impurities are skimmed and removed and any consumables required are added. Lead is then drained from the pot through an outlet pipe and valve.
Capacity of such pots depends upon the requirements of particular units. Standard pot capacities made are from 3.0 Tons per Batch to20.0 Tons per Batch. Higher capacity pots are also manufactured as required by any particular establishment.
Melting pots are installed both with and without accessories which may include Ingot Casting Machine, Ball Making Machine (where Ball Mills are installed down the line), Air Pollution Control Systems, Jib Cranes etc.
Production Process :
Melting Processes have been grouped as
Re-Melting Process : This process is undertaken for value addition to the recycled lead from furnaces. Lead is melted in the pot and major impurities are skimmed from it to make it saleable in the market.
Refining Process : Lead is melted in the pot, additives such as Sulphur, Wooden Powder and Coke Breeze are added and mixed gently followed by dross removal. Thereafter, Tin is added to remove Copper and temperature is increased to 550-6000C. Further, additives such as Sodium Nitrate & Caustic Soda are added to remove Antimony. This process is repeated to get the desired purity of lead.
Alloying Process : Lead is melted in the pot; additives such as Sulphur, Wooden Powder & Coke Breeze are added and mixed gently followed bydross removal. Thereafter, Tin & Antimony are added to the liquid metal to get the desired grade of Lead.
Melting processes lead to generation of air pollution at the following stages :
Hence, to meet various goals of maintaining employees' health, factory environments as well as regulatory requirements, it becomes imperative to get high end Air Pollution Control Systems to be installed with the Melting Pots.
Characteristics of Air Pollution generated in Melting Pot :
Discharge Characteristics required as per Norms :
Selection & Detailson Technology for Air Pollution Control : Based on the Parameters and the Standards mentioned, the following technology is adopted for Air Pollution Control Systemin Melting Pot is Pulse Jet based Bag House Filtration System